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I have been reading about Bitcoin routing attacks and I'm wondering how things differ with Ripple. Quick summary of what I read: Bitcoin uses a general gossip protocol which broadcasts all transactions to the network. Internet routing infrastructure is insecure and can easily be manipulated by attackers to intercept Bitcoin traffic. Bitcoin messages are exchanged in clear text and without integrity checks, any (malicious) third-party on the forwarding path can eavesdrop, drop, modify, inject, or delay Bitcoin messages. Bitcoin is extremely centralized from an Internet routing perspective. (Only 13 ASes host 30% of the entire network, while 50 ASes host 50% of the Bitcoin network.) Any malicious ISP with access to the Internet routing infrastructure can perform a routing attack by partitioning the Bitcoin network and isolating 50% of its mining power. Any ISP transiting Bitcoin traffic can delay the propagation of mined blocks (for up to 20 minutes), in a stealth way. Many examples of actual routing attacks that ended up diverting Bitcoin traffic have been found. So, how does Ripple differ? How are transactions broadcast? I'm assuming end-to-end encryption isn't used, because then validators wouldn't be able to see what they're validating?