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BobWay

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  1. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from thinlyspread in List: Potential Book Chapters / Topics   
    Ripple Gateways
     
  2. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from thinlyspread in List: Potential Book Chapters / Topics   
    R3 And other integrations
  3. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from thinlyspread in List: Potential Book Chapters / Topics   
    XRP evolved...  derivatives and lending and pooling...
  4. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from Frans in Hi! I'm Bob   
    There were some follow on posts as well, I try to address the concept the best I can hear. If I miss your particular question please ask again.
    Stefan and I identified what we named "the connector pattern". That is where an entity (Larry) receives a payment on one system, say XRPL and in response sends a payment on another system, say PayPal. The reverse is also possible, you might receive a PayPal payment, then send an XRPL payment.This is the basic principle that RippleConnect implements. It is used to connect hosted wallets, core banking systems, payment systems and other things to the XRP ledger.
    Early on there was an automated Ripple gateway that watched the bitcoin ledger for incoming payments, then sent a Ripple payment denominated in BTC. This in effect "issued" BTC on the ripple ledger. You could pass BTC from one Ripple user to another in seconds. You could also buy and sell it using the internal Ripple markets. All without signing a BTC transaction or waiting for a block to mine.
    It is absolutely possible to do that today. It becomes a "trust" relationship, since on the main XRPL you need to sent XRP to some particular account. Whoever holds the secret for that account might refuse to honor that debt in the future. But once you sent XRP to that account, you could manage it using any number of "sub-ledger" implementations.
    It is not necessary to use a new rippled network to do so, but there is nothing stopping you from doing so. Personally I wouldn't try to equate the XRP on one with XRP on the other. I'd just use trust lines to represent the remote XRP. You can implement a nice double entry accounting system on your sub-ledger system for free this way. That lets rippled reconcile the XRP held on the main XRPL with the liabilities issued to sub-ledger users. It also allows your Sub-ledger native XRP to be used exclusively for transaction fees and account reserves without regard to the price of XRP on the main XRPL.
    I have no idea if anyone is doing that at the moment.
    Normally I blame transactional anomalies on some anonymous stranger "stress testing" the XRPL. I think David and Nik would tell you that happen more than people give it created for. Also, since anyone can create USD trust lines and issue balances (fake money). Then anyone can also place market order for this fake money against XRP. Occasionally someone finds a user that left there rippling flags enable, and uses this to maliciously swap good money for bad.
    If anyone wants to gather the transaction ID you're most interested in, I'll take a look at them and explain what I can.
  5. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Frans in Hi! I'm Bob   
    This is a good question but it mixes a bunch of topics together that may be confusing you more than necessary.
    Yes, your math works in the first two paragraphs. But in the subtext of the third you seem imply that buying 1,000,000 XRP at $1 will move the market up faster than buying 500,000 XRP at $2. That is not necessarily as straightforward as you might have been led to believe.
    What people in crypto have generally seen in their trading experience are very "thin books". When you look at the valley diagram you see a wide spread and very sharp tips at the bottom of the valley. Sharp meaning there is very little liquidating to buy a the best price and not much more as you move up the sides of the slope. So since larger purchases represent "an area under the curve" and the curve is very flat, prices move up and down very fast. As you get to the steeper sides of that valley, the area under the curve represents more value, so the prices seem to move slower.
    However, often in crypto, once the price moves toward that steep side, some of the people previously willing to sell at what they thought was an awesome prices a few minutes ago run away. They cancel their orders and reset them for an even higher price. This flattens the bottom of the valley again and adds to the price volatility.
    But if you bring professional market makers into that book, they are NOT looking to profit on that price volatility. They profit on the spread as payments go back and forth. So what you might see is more than a million dollars of liquidity at the very tip of the book. That means neither of the $1,000,000 transactions you mentioned at the beginning move the market at all. It is this deeper (thicker?) book that reduces the price volatility, not necessarily the absolute price of XRP.
    And it isn't declining demand that pushes down prices. It is impatient sellers who don't have time to wait for what demand is there. It is this inability to wait that moves the market both up and down. So while it might be possible to buy a million dollars of XRP at 0.30 if you buy just what's available when it hits that price over the course of a few days. If you really want to get the deal done this second, you are going to pay much more.
    So volatility is a function of order book liquidity at each price level vs the instantaneous demand (impatience) to cross the spread. So the price can be very volatile (moving up and back down very often) without moving very much on average if lots of people are impatient to both buy and sell in amounts larger than the tip liquidity will support. The price could also move without being particularly volatile, if more people wanted to buy than sell, but they were willing to be more patient and not try to buy in large chunks.
    I recommend you read my previous post on market makers, arbitragers and speculators. That is a reasonable primer to get your studies going.
  6. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Rey in Hi! I'm Bob   
    "community credit" or more often "social credit" is jargon and represents a different concept than you are describing.
    Basically, social credit is a descendant of the Local Exchange Trading System (LETS) idea to improve liquidity among cooperating communities of individuals. It actually works without needing funding at all. You can consider all cryptocurrency a special case of a LETS system with no negative numbers.
    "Classic RipplePay" the direct antecedent of Ripple was the first implementation of social credit.
  7. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from Frans in Hi! I'm Bob   
    Sorry to answer out of order, but I think this is closely related to what I just got done writing about.
    I addressed this in my previous post. I would absolutely expect that to happen.
    Ripple has a team called "Product" and a separate team called "Development".
    The Ripple development team has created a set of core technologies. Rippled, RippleConnect, the Interledger Protocol, the ILP components (ledger, connector, notary).
    The Ripple product team has take these technologies and "productized" them for certain markets. (xCurrent, xVia, xRapid) The Ripple marketing and communication team and sales team then promotes these products. Marcom through the Ripple website, press and conferences. The sales team through direct meetings with banks and payment service providers. 
    The marcom efforts are what tend to leak across to this site. What you don't really hear about are the core technology developments and how they underly current products. Once you understand that it becomes easier to guess about future products.So specifically, you hear xRapid is meant for non-banking financial institutions. That is absolutely true at the moment. What I hear is much different.
    I hear:
    We've put together glossy fliers to explain some core Ripple technology to payment services providers in these countries who serve these types of customers We're setting up press interviews to get word of this particular growth tactic into our targeted market We've also put together a sales team to approach payment service providers in those countries We've also put together operations and support teams to make sure anything they've deployed doesn't fall over We've also setup a markets team to monitory the prices and trading volume to make sure XRP is cheaper than alternative paths We've also has the markets team analyze alternative rebalancing paths than can compensate for one-way-flow price imbalances Note that all of the things I've bulleted build operation excellence. They don't actually constrain XRPs use to that particular market in perpetuity. At any given moment, the product and marketing teams might decide to take the exact same underlying core technologies and "re-productize" them towards a new set of potential customers. When this happens, all the operational excellence will transfer and the new teams will have a running start as they grow RippleNet.
    I think the "write a book" side is winning at the moment! 
    What I'm trying to clarify is that banks as gateways is exactly what Ripple is trying to achieve! It just seems like Ripple is taking a rather convoluted path to get there. There are several reasons for that. Early on we tried to sell Banks on the idea of being directly on the RCL (Ripple ledger) and allowing their customers to open accounts (trust lines) with them directly on ledger. The banks pushed back on this pretty hard. It is pretty easy to see why. The Ripple client was a bit hard to use and understand for someone who wasn't a crypto geek. The already had their own "web banking" clients and preferred to keep their customers in their own walled garden.
    Secondly, the banks really didn't like the concept of a "public" ledger. Banks are used to keeping all their relationships and transactions private.
    And third, all high volume financial institutions kept asking, "Will it scale?" Questions like, "Can you support every credit card transaction during the Christmas season?" There is no getting around the fact that consensus based systems have limits. If everyone world wide needed to reach agreement that every Chinese lunch CNY payment happened and serialize them into a single globally agreed upon sequence that seems a bit silly if you are a European bank specialized in local EUR payments. Beyond transactional scalability, you need to think about user account scalability. If you want to put 8 billion people on ledger and each of them is going to have a couple of trust lines and maybe market orders then you are looking towards 100 billion ledger entries. That means server get larger and operational costs do as well.
    User scalability led us toward a "hosted wallet" model.
    Most customer fiat accounts are kept off RCL at the banks that currently hold them. Only a single RCL account root is needed for the bank. Individual customers. All transaction are processed via RCL using source/destination tags so the institutions can figure out which customers were involved. RippleConnect was designed to protect the customer's privacy even though the ledger transactions among banks were still public.
    It did away with the need for publicly visible source/destination tags. It implemented the concept of "pre-transaction negotiation" between financial institutions. Institutions communicate off ledger to: Determine who Alice and Bob are Exchange KYC/AML information Decide if all parties are willing to participate in a transaction PRIOR TO moving any money on the RCL This ability to reject a transaction before it happens completely avoids the lossy reversal problem inherent with market based payments. ILP was Ripple's attempt to address the other banks concerns of privacy and scalability
    ILP based networks use bi-lateral communication between account co-parties. No one else sees those messages. ILP based networks are highly scalable because your server doesn't receive messages for transactions you don't participate in. Every Ripple product you read about is built out of a handful of core technologies.
    The Ripple consensus ledger (XRPL now). This is useful when you need synchronized transactions and no counter party risk. ILP based components (xCurrent, xVia). These are useful when you need synchronized transactions as well and privacy and scalability. RippleConnect's pre-transaction messaging and payment object. This allows institutions to agree on what they are doing and the costs, prior to moving money. xCurrent, xVia, xRapid all use the payment object and pre-transaction messaging concepts. RippleConnect 1.0-2.0 implemented hosted wallets for RCL RippleConnect 3.0 implemented hosted wallets for ILP   
    If you separate the core technologies from the product/marketing discussion it becomes much easer to see a roadmap that takes us all the way to the end.
     
  8. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Frans in RIPPLE Ripple’s CTO clarifies that Interledger Protocol [ILP] is not connected to the RippleNet yet   
    One of the reason I wanted to make an account here was to comment on this particular thread. So apologies for resurrecting something slight older.
    Without contradicting David or Evan, I'd like to add a bit of context here.
    The Ripple product xCurrent does use "The Interledger Protocol" (ILP) version 1.0 in atomic mode. I can say this authoritatively because I was the original architect of RippleConnect (renamed xCurrent) and also part of the Ripple research team during the creation of ILP. One of my key contributions to the protocol was "atomic mode". This is absolutely the right technology for multi-party payments among banks. This includes same currency and cross currency inter-bank transactions. ILP 1.0 atomic mode was specifically designed to "synchronize" multi-party accounting transactions. That is the concept you see referenced here by the Bank of England in their survey. 
    This call for interest explains the concept well.
    There are some awesome related threads on this site as well. Here and here. I apologize if I missed others.
    Synchronized (atomic) payments among banks is one of the key technologies in Ripple's arsenal. It is hard to overestimate how important it is.
    ----
    On interledger.org what Evan was referencing as "the open interledger" is implemented using ILP version 4 (penny switching). You might ask what happened to ILP v2 and ILP v3. I often ask myself that as well. ;-)  It turns out that those were rather short term interim proposals between ILP v1 and ILP v4. Even more confusing is that there were two different view points on ILP v4 as well. I called them "grown up payments" vs "penny switching". ILP v4 PS is a really mind blowing way to think about reducing payment risk by via "packet switching" analogies with the internet. (I'm happy to go into all the details and differences elsewhere if people are interested.) ILP v4 penny switching serves as the underlying technology for ILP "streaming payments". This is one of the key concepts that is so exciting about Coil!
    The important thing to understand is that ILP v4 is NOT a semantic versioning of an incrementally improving ILP v1 (xCurrent) product. The two were designed for different use cases and different user bases. ILP v4 is a second high speed clearing layer (analogous to lightning) that is built to complement the ILP v1 settlement layer (analogous to bitcoin).
    ----
    The two "protocols" are designed to complement each other, however, at the moment the two "networks" don't overlap. This shouldn't cause concern if you understand what the short and long term goals are. Banks are focusing on bank to bank atomic (instantly settled) payments. Individuals are focused on high speed p2p clearing with (currently) ad hoc settlement. If you think of the individuals participants as accounting networks, then they create two (currently) disconnected graphs. This is fine while "the open interledger" is gaining its peer-to-peer feet. But it should be expected that those parties will replace their current ad hoc settlement relationships with standard ILP v1 interbank payments once those API's become available at the consumer level.
    The way I understand the current jargon is:
    RippleNet: is a bank focused network build using Ripple's xCurrent, xRapid & xVia products. These products are base on ILP V1 atomic mode but are currently being referred to as RippleNet rather than as "The interledger".
    The Open Interledger: is a group of individuals building a network using recent interledger.org public standards. These are based on ILP V4 clearing protocols.
    The term "THE interledger" creates a hugely unfortunate and unbelievably confusing naming clash. I hope I've done a little to clarify it.
  9. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Spunkmeyer in Answer: Wen Moon?   
    I don't know.
    As I've mentioned in my introductory thread, I am bullish on XRP in the long term. I own XRP and I also own Ripple stock.
    Ripple stock is not publicly traded and is generally much more illiquid that XRP. However, based on other people's reports of selling Ripple stock on the secondary markets, it appears that the price of Ripple stock is closely correlated to the price of XRP. Based on my back of the envelope calculations, the market value of my investments is split about evenly between stock and XRP. If I could, I'd gladly trade my stock for XRP to gain the added liquidity XRP brings.
    It is important for you to know that I'm not rich enough to be worth kidnapping.
    It is also important for you to know that if I was a savvy trader I would be. I discovered bitcoin when the price of BTC was 5 to a dollar. I didn't buy it then and haven't traded much over the past 8 years at all. I also had someone point me to Microsoft stock in the very early days. I didn't buy that either. I don't gamble when I go to Vegas and I don't even like to follow the price of XRP and BTC because volatility gives me a huge amount of anxiety.
    So it should be absolutely clear to the average observer, that no one should take trading or investment advice from me.
    But if you want to know my personal unsubstantiated opinion I'm happy to tell you.
    In the long term, I expect Ripple as a company and XRP as an asset to succeed big time. Big time, means dramatically transforming and improving the world's financial systems and the way money works today. I'm expecting XRP's longterm moving average to rise as more more and more transactional liquidity flows through a growing RippleNet.
    In the short term, I expect XRPs price to be volatile and prone to spikes. I expect this volatility will be true of all other traditional cryptocurrencies as well. The reason I think so, is that it appears to me that speculators are trading multiple cryptocurrencies at a time using similar buy/sell strategies. I don't have any evidence of this, it just seems so to me from watching correlation (not causation) in the price charts.
    In the long term I expect XRP to be the "winning" cryptocurrency displacing all the others. I've come to this opinion without considering the low level technical details of the coins or their marketing spin. My opinion is based on the observation that all business transactions are circular. And this circle determines how currencies are valued. Here, the concept of circular business transaction means that when Alice buys widgets from Bob in exchange for currency, from Alice's perspective the value of the good equals the value of the currency used to pay for it. That seems obvious to the casual observer, but in the crypto space people rarely talk about it.
    In thinking about this I realized that the return value flow (the goods or services delivered) defines the value of the currency used to make the payment. Not the other way around. (Perhaps the goods or services have intrinsic value while the currency's value is relative, but that starts to sound like philosophy rather than economics.)
    So I began thinking about the business cycle along with the full transactional circle. Of course, no business transaction can take place without the agreement of BOTH Alice and Bob. Alice wants something and Bob wants something. The relationship is circular but it is not symmetrical. What Alice wants (the good or services) drives the transaction. What Bob wants (the money) is secondary. So in the business flow, Alice always decides what she wants first. Only then can Bob tell her what he wants in exchange (Alice's cost).
    So in my mind, the value of a currency is strictly CAUSED by the number of transactional circles it can participate in. If you make the presumption that any given Alice could potentially want something from any given Bob. And also the presumption that any given Bob could deliver to any given Alice. Then return value part of every transactional circle is unconstrained. So then you must focus on how Bob's choice of currency (what Bob wants) constrains the number of circles that can be completed. Which obviously brings us to set theory. 
    That's just a fancy way of saying if Bob wants a currency that Alice doesn't have then they can't do a deal. So if Bob wants EUR but Alice only has  USD then the deal can't be done. And if the deal can't be done, the return value (goods or services that don't trade) can't support the value of either USD or EUR. So both of those currencies subsequently becomes worth less than it would have been if that deal could be done.
    Curiously, if you add a bridge currency like XRP into the transaction in order to complete the transactional circle, then the return value (which now does trade) equally supports the value of all three currencies. Which seems odd so lets do some simple "figurin".
    Alice wants (X widgets) from Bob. Bob wants (Y EUR) from Mak. Mak wants (Z XRP) from Mark. Mark wanting (Q USD) from Alice completes the transactional circle. So as we stated before by definition if Alice pays then she decided it was a fair (equal) trade. And Mark and Mak thought their deals were fair (equal) as well.  So: (X widget) = (Q USD) = (Z XRP) = (Y EUR). But what would happen if both Alice and Bob used XRP?  Well then you'd have: (X widget) = (Z XRP)
    So my lay man's conclusion (I am not an economist) says that XRP being used as a bridge currency supports XRP's value equally as much as XRP being used as a retail currency. But the set of transaction circles that can be created using XRP as a bridge currency is DRAMATICALLY larger than the set of transaction circles that can be created using XRP or any cryptocurrency as a retail currency. And actually, the set of all transactions that can be completed using XRP as retail currency is a proper subset of the transactions that can be completed using XRP as a bridge currency.
    So to maximize XRP's value, you must focus on the XRP bridge use case. And that is exactly what Ripple is focused on.
     
    But, can't the same be said of any cryptocurrency? Meaning if BTC became the de facto bridge currency then it would be the most valuable cryptocurrency.
    Actually, yes. If that came to pass it would be true.
    But, I proved to myself that you can't actually get BTC there from here. It just mathematically can't happen. BTC as a bridge currency will always initially be a more expensive transaction path than an alternative path without BTC. And nobody has enough BTC to force (subsidize or incentivize) BTC into that position. My same logic hold for all the currently popular cryptocurrencies.  
    But, I believe, it is actually possible to force XRP into the position of de facto bridge currency. And that is what that patent is about.
     
    Of course, I could be wrong in my logic somewhere, or Ripple could fail in their execution, or a million other bad things might happen along the way. So let me repeat, no one should take trading or investment advice from me.
  10. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Xill in Answer: Wen Moon?   
    I don't know.
    As I've mentioned in my introductory thread, I am bullish on XRP in the long term. I own XRP and I also own Ripple stock.
    Ripple stock is not publicly traded and is generally much more illiquid that XRP. However, based on other people's reports of selling Ripple stock on the secondary markets, it appears that the price of Ripple stock is closely correlated to the price of XRP. Based on my back of the envelope calculations, the market value of my investments is split about evenly between stock and XRP. If I could, I'd gladly trade my stock for XRP to gain the added liquidity XRP brings.
    It is important for you to know that I'm not rich enough to be worth kidnapping.
    It is also important for you to know that if I was a savvy trader I would be. I discovered bitcoin when the price of BTC was 5 to a dollar. I didn't buy it then and haven't traded much over the past 8 years at all. I also had someone point me to Microsoft stock in the very early days. I didn't buy that either. I don't gamble when I go to Vegas and I don't even like to follow the price of XRP and BTC because volatility gives me a huge amount of anxiety.
    So it should be absolutely clear to the average observer, that no one should take trading or investment advice from me.
    But if you want to know my personal unsubstantiated opinion I'm happy to tell you.
    In the long term, I expect Ripple as a company and XRP as an asset to succeed big time. Big time, means dramatically transforming and improving the world's financial systems and the way money works today. I'm expecting XRP's longterm moving average to rise as more more and more transactional liquidity flows through a growing RippleNet.
    In the short term, I expect XRPs price to be volatile and prone to spikes. I expect this volatility will be true of all other traditional cryptocurrencies as well. The reason I think so, is that it appears to me that speculators are trading multiple cryptocurrencies at a time using similar buy/sell strategies. I don't have any evidence of this, it just seems so to me from watching correlation (not causation) in the price charts.
    In the long term I expect XRP to be the "winning" cryptocurrency displacing all the others. I've come to this opinion without considering the low level technical details of the coins or their marketing spin. My opinion is based on the observation that all business transactions are circular. And this circle determines how currencies are valued. Here, the concept of circular business transaction means that when Alice buys widgets from Bob in exchange for currency, from Alice's perspective the value of the good equals the value of the currency used to pay for it. That seems obvious to the casual observer, but in the crypto space people rarely talk about it.
    In thinking about this I realized that the return value flow (the goods or services delivered) defines the value of the currency used to make the payment. Not the other way around. (Perhaps the goods or services have intrinsic value while the currency's value is relative, but that starts to sound like philosophy rather than economics.)
    So I began thinking about the business cycle along with the full transactional circle. Of course, no business transaction can take place without the agreement of BOTH Alice and Bob. Alice wants something and Bob wants something. The relationship is circular but it is not symmetrical. What Alice wants (the good or services) drives the transaction. What Bob wants (the money) is secondary. So in the business flow, Alice always decides what she wants first. Only then can Bob tell her what he wants in exchange (Alice's cost).
    So in my mind, the value of a currency is strictly CAUSED by the number of transactional circles it can participate in. If you make the presumption that any given Alice could potentially want something from any given Bob. And also the presumption that any given Bob could deliver to any given Alice. Then return value part of every transactional circle is unconstrained. So then you must focus on how Bob's choice of currency (what Bob wants) constrains the number of circles that can be completed. Which obviously brings us to set theory. 
    That's just a fancy way of saying if Bob wants a currency that Alice doesn't have then they can't do a deal. So if Bob wants EUR but Alice only has  USD then the deal can't be done. And if the deal can't be done, the return value (goods or services that don't trade) can't support the value of either USD or EUR. So both of those currencies subsequently becomes worth less than it would have been if that deal could be done.
    Curiously, if you add a bridge currency like XRP into the transaction in order to complete the transactional circle, then the return value (which now does trade) equally supports the value of all three currencies. Which seems odd so lets do some simple "figurin".
    Alice wants (X widgets) from Bob. Bob wants (Y EUR) from Mak. Mak wants (Z XRP) from Mark. Mark wanting (Q USD) from Alice completes the transactional circle. So as we stated before by definition if Alice pays then she decided it was a fair (equal) trade. And Mark and Mak thought their deals were fair (equal) as well.  So: (X widget) = (Q USD) = (Z XRP) = (Y EUR). But what would happen if both Alice and Bob used XRP?  Well then you'd have: (X widget) = (Z XRP)
    So my lay man's conclusion (I am not an economist) says that XRP being used as a bridge currency supports XRP's value equally as much as XRP being used as a retail currency. But the set of transaction circles that can be created using XRP as a bridge currency is DRAMATICALLY larger than the set of transaction circles that can be created using XRP or any cryptocurrency as a retail currency. And actually, the set of all transactions that can be completed using XRP as retail currency is a proper subset of the transactions that can be completed using XRP as a bridge currency.
    So to maximize XRP's value, you must focus on the XRP bridge use case. And that is exactly what Ripple is focused on.
     
    But, can't the same be said of any cryptocurrency? Meaning if BTC became the de facto bridge currency then it would be the most valuable cryptocurrency.
    Actually, yes. If that came to pass it would be true.
    But, I proved to myself that you can't actually get BTC there from here. It just mathematically can't happen. BTC as a bridge currency will always initially be a more expensive transaction path than an alternative path without BTC. And nobody has enough BTC to force (subsidize or incentivize) BTC into that position. My same logic hold for all the currently popular cryptocurrencies.  
    But, I believe, it is actually possible to force XRP into the position of de facto bridge currency. And that is what that patent is about.
     
    Of course, I could be wrong in my logic somewhere, or Ripple could fail in their execution, or a million other bad things might happen along the way. So let me repeat, no one should take trading or investment advice from me.
  11. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from XRPboi in RIPPLE Ripple’s CTO clarifies that Interledger Protocol [ILP] is not connected to the RippleNet yet   
    I never read Ripple's press releases or watch the interviews. I always felt it was my job to understand  the deeper view.
    I can't really say when it will "break wide open", but I do see from first hand experience that banks and financial companies are pack animals. I can't tell you how many times I heard a version of, "We'd like to be your very first, second customer." Personally, I'm bullish on 2019 being a very good year.
  12. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from XRPboi in RIPPLE Ripple’s CTO clarifies that Interledger Protocol [ILP] is not connected to the RippleNet yet   
    Sorry, I pushed return too early. I answered some of this in an edit.
    It turns out that the financial system is tiered. The central bank is at the top. Licensed banks have accounts with the central bank but rarely with each other. Money service businesses (MSB) including remittance and other licensed money transmitters (MTL) have accounts with banks. Business and consumers use MSB to handle payments and remittances.
    So as it turns out, banks do not hand AML/KYC for MSB customers. The MSBs have to handle that themselves. But as it turns out, sometimes banks need to know their customer's customer as well as their own direct customer. If someone move money through a bank for nefarious purposes via an MSB then the bank can be held responsible and fined. This makes those relationships very complicate.
    So it turns out that money transmission companies (think Western Union) have to be end-to-end responsible for the payment. They need to know both Alice and Bob and the reason for the payment. This makes it almost impossible to say originate a payment with Western Union and have it delivered via a MoneyGram location. So MT system get Balkanized and expensive.
    What xCurrent, xVia, and xRapid do is to assure that all parties in the chain can be mixed and matched while still remaining compliant. It does this be creating standards for deciding if you want to participate in a given end-to-end transaction prior to any money moving at all. No one I've heard of is working on transactions at this level.
  13. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from XRPboi in RIPPLE Ripple’s CTO clarifies that Interledger Protocol [ILP] is not connected to the RippleNet yet   
    I think that it is deceptively hard to replicate. It seems like it should be technically easy (and it is), but the hard parts are compliance and liquidity based. That is where Ripple has be working the hardest.
    it's also short sighted to think of XRP as being synonymous with xRapid and not the other products. While it may seem so at the moment, it should be clear from the RippleNet diagrams that they all fit together into a comprehensive system where each component builds on the others.
    It turns out that international payments through crypto draw nicely on paper, but there are a lot of moving parts.
    Alice generally has to send money from her account through the local currency system to a compliant exchange bank account. The exchange has to detect the local bank transfer and then credit that money to someone on the exchange. The local currency has to be traded at the current rate for crypt The crypto need to be sent via blockchain to the remote exchange The crypto needs to be credited to someone on the exchange. The crypto needs to be traded at the current rate for the remote currency. The remote currency needs to be moved off the exchange and credited to someone at that exchange's bank The money needs to be send from the account at the exchanges bank to Bob's account through the local system. Then of course you find out that Bob closed his account last week. So the whole process needs to suffer a lossy reversal process. But all of that is really easy conceptually...
    Later you realize that sending money to a local exchange and trading it for crypto yourself is normally a series of two-party transaction. (otherwise known as "just doing business"). Exchange are setup and compliant for these types of transactions. But sending payments generally require three (or multiple) party transaction. This turns "just doing business" into "money transmission" which is highly over regulated in every country and state. Aaarrrggg!
  14. Thanks
    BobWay got a reaction from XRPboi in RIPPLE Ripple’s CTO clarifies that Interledger Protocol [ILP] is not connected to the RippleNet yet   
    One of the reason I wanted to make an account here was to comment on this particular thread. So apologies for resurrecting something slight older.
    Without contradicting David or Evan, I'd like to add a bit of context here.
    The Ripple product xCurrent does use "The Interledger Protocol" (ILP) version 1.0 in atomic mode. I can say this authoritatively because I was the original architect of RippleConnect (renamed xCurrent) and also part of the Ripple research team during the creation of ILP. One of my key contributions to the protocol was "atomic mode". This is absolutely the right technology for multi-party payments among banks. This includes same currency and cross currency inter-bank transactions. ILP 1.0 atomic mode was specifically designed to "synchronize" multi-party accounting transactions. That is the concept you see referenced here by the Bank of England in their survey. 
    This call for interest explains the concept well.
    There are some awesome related threads on this site as well. Here and here. I apologize if I missed others.
    Synchronized (atomic) payments among banks is one of the key technologies in Ripple's arsenal. It is hard to overestimate how important it is.
    ----
    On interledger.org what Evan was referencing as "the open interledger" is implemented using ILP version 4 (penny switching). You might ask what happened to ILP v2 and ILP v3. I often ask myself that as well. ;-)  It turns out that those were rather short term interim proposals between ILP v1 and ILP v4. Even more confusing is that there were two different view points on ILP v4 as well. I called them "grown up payments" vs "penny switching". ILP v4 PS is a really mind blowing way to think about reducing payment risk by via "packet switching" analogies with the internet. (I'm happy to go into all the details and differences elsewhere if people are interested.) ILP v4 penny switching serves as the underlying technology for ILP "streaming payments". This is one of the key concepts that is so exciting about Coil!
    The important thing to understand is that ILP v4 is NOT a semantic versioning of an incrementally improving ILP v1 (xCurrent) product. The two were designed for different use cases and different user bases. ILP v4 is a second high speed clearing layer (analogous to lightning) that is built to complement the ILP v1 settlement layer (analogous to bitcoin).
    ----
    The two "protocols" are designed to complement each other, however, at the moment the two "networks" don't overlap. This shouldn't cause concern if you understand what the short and long term goals are. Banks are focusing on bank to bank atomic (instantly settled) payments. Individuals are focused on high speed p2p clearing with (currently) ad hoc settlement. If you think of the individuals participants as accounting networks, then they create two (currently) disconnected graphs. This is fine while "the open interledger" is gaining its peer-to-peer feet. But it should be expected that those parties will replace their current ad hoc settlement relationships with standard ILP v1 interbank payments once those API's become available at the consumer level.
    The way I understand the current jargon is:
    RippleNet: is a bank focused network build using Ripple's xCurrent, xRapid & xVia products. These products are base on ILP V1 atomic mode but are currently being referred to as RippleNet rather than as "The interledger".
    The Open Interledger: is a group of individuals building a network using recent interledger.org public standards. These are based on ILP V4 clearing protocols.
    The term "THE interledger" creates a hugely unfortunate and unbelievably confusing naming clash. I hope I've done a little to clarify it.
  15. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from r0bertz in Answer: About the patent, Let's talk   
    This is a very good way of thinking about it. The analogy isn't perfect but first two sentences are spot on.
    Most people are familiar with speculators, but not really familiar with market makers.
    If you ask a speculator what will drive up the market price, they'll often tell you, "More people who want to buy and hold XRP long term." It is because increasing buying volume without increasing selling volume exhausted the lowest price offers first, then must take higher and higher offers to satisfy demand.
    But market makers don't seem like long term HODLers to most speculators. This is because XRP market makers are constantly buying and selling XRP at the same time. So what could seem less HODL than having continuous sequence of SELL order in the market at all time? But it turns out that only half understands the situation.
    In order to place a SELL order in the market, you must first be HODLing the XRP you're wanting to sell. And if you want to keep sell orders in the market continuously, forever, you must also be HODLing XRP continually, forever. So market makers continuously BUY back whatever XRP they sell, as soon as possible. This gives them the XRP inventory they need to sell again on the next payment.  So you can visualize an XRP/USD market maker who deploys half of their capital in XRP and the other half in USD. Then they work to continually keep that value balance equal. Of course they also work to keep their total investment continually growing as well.
    A MM's investment growth comes from "transaction fees" paid by the senders of a payment that ripples through XRP as a bridge. It really isn't an explicit "fee". It is the difference between the market spread prices (highest bid vs lowest offer). In effect, a MM is always selling XRP for a price slightly higher than the price they buy the XRP back for. When doing this, the MM's profit scales with payment volume rather than with XRP price change.
    So if a MM is profitable trading against back and forth payments on a given corridor (XRP/USD) they want to keep trading that corridor, forever. And to do that, then need to keep HODLing XRP forever. So how can you increase the price of XRP?  Well, of course, attract more market makers to the corridor and system. They can't trade a corridor until AFTER they purchase their stake of XRP. And once they have purchased that XRP and are profitably making the market, they are in effect long term HODLers.
    Note, a MM's profit does not scale with their investment. It scales with increasing payment volume through their investment. So doubling payment volume can support twice as many MM at the same ROI. Of course this requires cumulatively doubling the MM's XRP stake as well.
    All utility comes for satisfying the NEED of someone to send a payment. It is this NEED that encourages them to pay slightly higher fees (Market Order) than those who merely WANT to make a payment but have more time to wait (Limit Order).
    But of course the whole strategy is worthless, if the XRP bridge currency path costs more end-to-end than alternative pathways. If we presume payment routing algorithms always take the lowest cost path (for Alice), then end-to-end cost becomes the switch that determines if the direct fiat/fiat market makers turn a profit, or if the fiat/XRP bridge market makers turn a profit.
  16. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from StellaBlueZerps in Hi! I'm Bob   
    Hello all. Just wanted to introduce myself. I'm Bob Way, formerly of Ripple. Thank you in advance for allowing me to join your forum.
    Back in the early days of crypto I was pretty active in the Bitcointalk and Ripple communities (under the username "Red"). In fact my community participation was what directly led to me going to work for Chris and the gang at OpenCoin. I made a lot of good friend in the forums five years back. I'm hoping to make some new ones now.
    Bob
  17. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from invest2lose in Answer: Wen Moon?   
    Bingo!
  18. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from Kaloone in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  19. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from GrumpyDon in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  20. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from v3spasian in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  21. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from PunishmentOfLuxury in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  22. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from mandelbaum in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  23. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from ADingoAteMyXRP in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  24. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from karlos in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
  25. Like
    BobWay got a reaction from bryce in List: The Voices in Bob’s Head   
    Wow it has been longer than I expected. Thank you everyone for sending all your good wishes.

    I've had a bunch of family related issues to handle over the past few months. Some were related to family members. Just the kind of things that every family has from time to time. But these issues outrank everything else for me. I don't mind talking about my issues, but the ones related to others I'm going to keep to myself.

    For those wondering, the doctors assure me that my prostate cancer is likely handled. They assure me this is true even though my PSA numbers are still higher than they should be. It turns out this past week I had my first PSA number drop! Woot! The working diagnosis is that I've had a strange case of prostatitis. I've had two months of different antibiotics and the second one seemed to turn the tide. I'll have lots more followup to make sure. But at least the discomfort is diminishing.

    One of the other long time consuming issues was that Janet and I have been basically transient for more than five years. This has included more city and apartment moves than I care to count. Unfortunately, our unpredictability has had negative impact on the rest of our extended family. So it became apparent that we needed to pick a permanent home base to settle into. Of course as anyone my age knows, these decisions become complicated when you have both aging parents to plan for and children you'd like to be close to.

    The end result is that we managed to move two more times. Finally we are almost settled into the place we intend to stay for a while. It's not super impressive, just a two bedroom condo, but we like it. My mother will be moving close to us in the near future. The combination will make a nice "home base" for the kids to come visit.

    Of course, when you close everything seems move-in-ready. But the move-in reality soon becomes an endless stream of home improvement projects to undertake. I'm still trying to sort out a 3-way light switch that looks like it was wired by a crazy person. There's no cabinet, closet space or furniture to unpack all our boxes into And here is a deck that needs to be rebuilt.

    The good news is that I have the internet working. Better still, my desk and computer are setup and I finally have a quiet office to work in! Woot!

    The plan is to get back to work on the Study Group if there is still interest. I'm digging out the decks and reworking the examples for practice today.
    In addition, I'll be reading the latest posts here in the book club and responding where I can be helpful.

    Feel free to message me if you have anything urgent to discuss. It's good to be back!
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